Paper and Printing Surface Defects
This page will in the future be linked to a gallery of images showing the various kinds of defects that I have encountered during my career in scientific paper making.
Even an 8.5 x 11 inch or A4 size printed paper can contain literally millions of pieces of important information that must be transferred through the human visual system to the brain. All this information is contained on an ink film whose dry thickness is only about 1 micron! This thickness is less than the topographical disturbances that can occur in even the highest-quality coated and supercalendered papers and far less than those occurring in LWC or SC or Newsprint grades.

It goes without saying that paper topographical disturbances significantly reduce the amount of information transfer and, as well, the print quality.

Good print quality begins with the paper topography and this really has it basis in the paper making process, even more so than the coating and calendering operations.
Machine-Direction Microstriations (right) on the Wire Side of an LWC basesheet (scale bar represents 1 mm).